The Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment (CCSI), a joint center of Columbia Law School and the Earth Institute, Columbia University, is the only university-based applied research center and forum dedicated to the study, practice and discussion of sustainable international investment. It develops practical approaches for governments, investors, communities, and other stakeholders to maximize the benefits of international investment for sustainable development. Applying its legal, economic, and policy expertise, CCSI addresses sustainable investment holistically, bridging investment law, natural resource management, human rights, economics, political economy, and environmental management. It works to strengthen the sustainable development potential of international investment, and to ensure that international investment is mutually beneficial for investors and the citizens of recipient countries.

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Publications from 2022

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Memo/Briefing Note: CCSI’s Consolidated Feedback on the WBA Draft Nature Benchmark Methodology, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: Climate Action Needs Investment Governance, Not Investment Protection and Arbitration, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: International Investment Governance and Achieving a Just Zero-Carbon Future, Ella Merrill, Martin Dietrich Brauch, and Lisa E. Sachs

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Memo/Briefing Note: International Investment Law and the Extractive Industries, Ella Merrill, Jesse Coleman, Lisa E. Sachs, and Lise Johnson

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Memo/Briefing Note: North Africa Can Reduce Europe's Dependence on Russian Gas by Transporting Wasted Gas Through Existing Infrastructure, Mark Davis, Perrine Toledano, and Thomas Schorr

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Memo/Briefing Note: PLUS Politics: Tackling the EIA Impact Gap, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Report/Policy Paper: Allocation of Climate-Related Risks in Investor–State Mining Contracts, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Perrine Toledano, and Cody Aceveda

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Report/Policy Paper: Business Guide: Respecting the Human Rights of Communities in Wind and Solar Project Deployment, Sarah Dolton-Zborowski and Sam Szoke-Burke

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Report/Policy Paper: How Much Have the Oil Supermajors Contributed to Climate Change?, Jiarui Chen, Perrine Toledano, and Martin Dietrich Brauch

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Report/Policy Paper: Investment Incentives: A Survey of Policies and Approaches for Sustainable Investment, Lise Johnson and Perrine Toledano

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Report/Policy Paper: Legal Primer: Respecting the Human Rights of Communities in Wind and Solar Project Deployment, Sarah Dolton-Zborowski and Sam Szoke-Burke

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Report/Policy Paper: Legal Provisions on Shared Use of Mining Infrastructure: Rail, Port, and Power, Logan Hinderliter, Martin Dietrich Brauch, and Perrine Toledano

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Report/Policy Paper: New Producer Contract Terms and Uncertainty: Lessons From the Recent Past, Patrick R.P. Heller, Perrine Toledano, David Mihalyi, and Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye

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Report/Policy Paper: Roadmap to Zero-Carbon Electrification of Africa by 2050: The Green Energy Transition and the Role of the Natural Resource Sector (Minerals, Fossil Fuels, and Land), Jeffrey D. Sachs, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Efosa Uwaifo, and Bryan Michael Sherrill

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Report/Policy Paper: Unlocking the Power of Reformers to Achieve Better Progress on Extractives Governance, Leila Kazemi and Perrine Toledano

Publications from 2021

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Article: Advocates Say ISDS Is Necessary Because Domestic Courts Are ‘Inadequate,’ But Claims and Decisions Don’t Reveal Systemic Failings, Maria Rocha, Martin Dietrich Brauch, and Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye

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Article: Corporate Net-Zero Pledges: The Bad and the Ugly, Jack Arnold and Perrine Toledano

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Article: Investment Governance in Africa to Support Climate Resilience and Decarbonization, Martin Dietrich Brauch and Brenda Akankunda

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Article: Investor-State Dispute Prevention: A Critical Reflection, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs, and Ella Merrill

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Article: Nigeria’s Petroleum Industry Bill: A Missed Opportunity to Prepare for the Zero-Carbon Future, Solina Kennedy, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Perrine Toledano, and Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye

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Article: Should the European Union Fix, Leave or Kill the Energy Charter Treaty?, Martin Dietrich Brauch

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Memo/Briefing Note: Comments to the Draft Working Group III Workplan, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, International Institute for Environment and Development, and International Institute for Sustainable Development

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Memo/Briefing Note: The Case for a Climate-Smart Update of the Africa Mining Vision, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Karan Bhulwaka, and Kojo Busia

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Report/Policy Paper: Carbon Accounting by Public and Private Financial Institutions: Can We Be Sure Climate Finance Is Leading to Emissions Reductions?, Martin Dietrich Brauch and Emily Spittle

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Report/Policy Paper: Comparison Between the IPCC Reporting Framework and Country Practice, Jiarui Chen and Martin Dietrich Brauch

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Report/Policy Paper: COVID-19 and Land-based Investment: Changing Landscapes, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Nathaniah Jacobs, and Clarisse Marsac

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Report/Policy Paper: Decarbonization Pathways for Paraguay’s Energy Sector, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment; Quadracci Sustainable Engineering Lab; and Centro de Recursos Naturales, Energía y Desarrollo (CRECE)

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Report/Policy Paper: Five Years After the Adoption of the Paris Agreement, Are Climate Change Considerations Reflected in Mining Contracts?, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, and Mara Greenberg

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Report/Policy Paper: Fixing the Business of Food: Aligning Food Company Practices with the SDGs, Sustainable Development Solutions Network, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, Sanda Chiara Lab, and Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition

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Report/Policy Paper: Getting From Ideas to Reality: Building Political Support to Translate Good Ideas Into Actual Practice, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment and Leila Kazemi

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Report/Policy Paper: Guide on Incentives for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems, Anna Bulman, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Ladan Mehranvar, Ella Merrill, and Yannick Fiedler

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Report/Policy Paper: Handbook for SDG-Aligned Food Companies: Four Pillar Framework Standards, Nora Mardirossian, Gaëlle Espinosa, Rico Rincón, Diana Marcela, Erin O’Dwyer, Abrania Marrero, Regan Plekenpol, Claudia P. Baethgen, Urvi Agarwal, Lisa E. Sachs, and Jeffrey D. Sachs

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Report/Policy Paper: New Tech, New Deal: Mining Policy Options in the Face of New Technology, Isabelle Ramdoo, Aaron Cosbey, Jeff Geipel, and Perrine Toledano

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Report/Policy Paper: Primer on International Investment Treaties and Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Report/Policy Paper: Responsible Coffee Sourcing: Towards a Living Income for Producers, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Margaret Sagan, and Solina Kennedy

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Report/Policy Paper: Transparency for Whom? Grounding Land Investment Transparency in the Needs of Local Actors, Sam Szoke-Burke

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Report/Policy Paper: Transparency of Land-based Investments: Cameroon Country Snapshot, Sam Szoke-Burke, Samuel Nguiffo, and Stella Tchoukep

Publications from 2020

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Article: Equipping the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation for the Low-Carbon Transition: How Are Other National Oil Companies Adapting?, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, and Francisco Javier Pardinas Favela

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Article: Making Coffee Sustainable, Jeffrey D. Sachs and Kaitlin Y. Cordes

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Article: Mechanisms for Consultation and Free, Prior and Informed Consent in the Negotiation of Investment Contracts, Sam Szoke-Burke and Kaitlin Y. Cordes

Book: The Yearbook on International Investment Law & Policy 2018, Lisa E. Sachs, Lise Johnson, and Jesse Coleman

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Book Chapter: Health Priorities for Sustainable Development, Lisa E. Sachs and Jeffrey D. Sachs

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Memo/Briefing Note: Briefing Note: Aligning International Investment Agreements with the Sustainable Development Goals, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs, and Nathan Lobel

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Memo/Briefing Note: Comment on US Trade and Investment Agreements Submitted to USTR, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: Draft Transparency Policy and DFC Board of Directors Public Engagement Policy, Kaitlin Y. Cordes

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Memo/Briefing Note: Executive Summary on Ensuring Economic Viability and Sustainability of Coffee Production, Jeffrey D. Sachs, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, James Rising, Perrine Toledano, and Nicolas Maennling

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Memo/Briefing Note: Incorporating Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) into Investment Approval Processes, Kelly Dudine and Sam Szoke-Burke

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Memo/Briefing Note: Investment Promotion and Facilitation for Sustainable Development, Brooke Guven

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Memo/Briefing Note: Modern Provisions in Investment Treaties, Jesse Coleman

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Memo/Briefing Note: Submission to Bonsucro re Production Standard v5 (2019-21), Nami Patel and Sam Szoke-Burke

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Memo/Briefing Note: The COMET Framework: Greenhouse Gas Data Transparency to Enable the Success of EU Climate Policy, Martin Dietrich Brauch and Solina Kennedy

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Report/Policy Paper: A Review of Sierra Leone’s Mines and Minerals Act, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Perrine Toledano, and Sophie Thomashausen

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Report/Policy Paper: Best Practices in Data Driven Development Planning in Mining Regions, Nicolas Maennling and Josefina Correa

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Report/Policy Paper: Don’t Throw Caution to the Wind: In the Green Energy Transition, Not All Critical Minerals Will Be Goldmines, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Solina Kennedy, and Howard Mann

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Report/Policy Paper: Electric Utility Alignment with the SDGs & the Paris Climate Agreement, Perrine Toledano, Aniket Shah, Nicolas Maennling, and Ryan J. Lasnick

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Report/Policy Paper: Environmental Injustice: How Treaties Undermine Human Rights Related to the Environment, Lisa E. Sachs, Lise Johnson, and Ella Merrill

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Report/Policy Paper: Free, Prior and Informed Consent: Addressing Political Realities to Improve Impact, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye and Leila Kazemi

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Report/Policy Paper: Getting the Most Out of Extractive Industries Transparency: How a More Explicit Treatment of Political Considerations Could Strengthen the Impact of Transparency Efforts, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Report/Policy Paper: Mining and the SDGs: A 2020 Status Update, Responsible Mining Foundation and Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Report/Policy Paper: Preparing Legal Frameworks for Environmental Disasters: Practical Considerations for Host States, Brooke Guven, Perrine Toledano, and Lise Johnson

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Report/Policy Paper: Shared-Use Infrastructure Along the World’s Largest Iron Ore Operation: Lessons Learned from the Carajás Corridor, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Nicolas Maennling, Perrine Toledano, Edgar Santos Monteiro, and Felipe Botelho Tavares

Publications from 2019

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Article: A Model for “Smart” Mineral Enterprise Development for Spurring Investment in Climate Change Mitigation Technology, Saleem Ali, Robert K. Perrons, Perrine Toledano, and Nicolas Maennling

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Article: Environmental Injustice: How Treaties Undermine the Right to a Healthy Environment, Lisa E. Sachs, Lise Johnson, and Ella Merrill

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Book: Modelling for Sustainable Development: New Decisions for a New Age, Andrea M. Bassi, Liesbeth Casier, David Laborde, Max Linsen, David Manley, Nicolas Maennling, Howard Mann, Morten Siersted, Carin Smaller, Iain Steele, David Uzsoki, and Johnny West

Book: The Yearbook on International Investment Law & Policy 2017, Lisa E. Sachs, Lise Johnson, and Jesse Coleman

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Book Chapter: African Mining and the SDGs: From Vision to Reality, Kathryn Sturman, Perrine Toledano, Charles F.A. Akayuli, and Mzamose Gondwe

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Book Chapter: Investment Treaties, Investor-State Dispute Settlement, and Inequality: How International Investment Treaties Exacerbate Domestic Disparities, Lise Johnson and Lisa E. Sachs

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Memo/Briefing Note: Agricultural Investments: A Primer for Host Government Lawyers and Local Lawyers in Private Practice, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye

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Memo/Briefing Note: Bridging the Information Gap: How Access to Land Contracts Can Serve Community Rights, Lara Wallis and Sam Szoke-Burke

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Memo/Briefing Note: Briefing for Civil Society Organizations – Understanding Commercial Eucalyptus Plantations: How Do They Work and What Are Their Environmental Impacts?, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: CCSI Submits Written Views to US Department of State Regarding UNCITRAL’s Working Group III, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: Draft Text Providing for Transparency and Prohibiting Certain Forms of Third-Party Funding in Investor–State Dispute Settlement, Brooke Güven, Lise Johnson, Nathalie Bernasconi-Osterwalder, Lorenzo Cotula, and Jane Kelsey

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Memo/Briefing Note: Draft Treaty Language: Withdrawal of Consent to Arbitrate and Termination of International Investment Agreements, Brooke Güven and Lise Johnson

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Memo/Briefing Note: Inconsistency's Many Forms in Investor-State Dispute Settlement and Implications for Reform, Lise Johnson and Lisa E. Sachs

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Memo/Briefing Note: Legal Frameworks & Foreign Investment: A Primer on Governments’ Obligations, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Lise Johnson, Sam Szoke-Burke, and Rumbidzaii Mawen

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Memo/Briefing Note: Primer: International Investment Treaties and Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: Reputational and Integrity Due Diligence on Investors, Kroll and Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: The Business and Human Rights Arbitration Rule Project: Falling Short of its Access to Justice Objectives, Lisa E. Sachs, Lise Johnson, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Jesse Coleman, and Brooke Güven

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Memo/Briefing Note: Third-Party Rights in Investor-State Dispute Settlement: Options for Reform, Jesse Coleman, Lise Johnson, Brooke Güven, Lorenzo Cotula, and Thierry Berger

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Memo/Briefing Note: UNCITRAL Working Group III on ISDS Reform: How Cross-Cutting Issues Reshape Reform Options, Lorenzo Cotula, Thierry Berger, Lise Johnson, Brooke Güven, and Jesse Coleman

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Report/Policy Paper: Aligning Investment Treaties with Sustainable Development Goals, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs, and Nathan Lobel

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Report/Policy Paper: Alternatives to Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Lise Johnson, Jesse Coleman, Brooke Güven, and Lisa E. Sachs

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Report/Policy Paper: Ensuring Economic Viability and Sustainability of Coffee Production, Jeffrey D. Sachs, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, James Rising, Perrine Toledano, and Nicolas Maennling

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Report/Policy Paper: Fixing the Business of Food: The Food Industry and the SDG Challenge, Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition, Sustainable Development Solutions Network, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, and Sanda Chiara Lab

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Report/Policy Paper: How International Oil Companies Could Assist Greece to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals: A Conversation Starter, Alexandra Sdoukou, Andreas Tornaritis, and Perrine Toledano

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Report/Policy Paper: Human Rights Law and the Investment Treaty Regime, Jesse Coleman, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, and Lise Johnson

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Report/Policy Paper: Innovative Financing Solutions for Community Support in the Context of Land Investments, Sam Szoke-Burke

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Report/Policy Paper: Investment Treaties, Investor-State Dispute Settlement and Inequality, Lisa E. Sachs and Lise Johnson

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Report/Policy Paper: Linkages to the Mining Sector in Colombia, Nicolas Maennling and Perrine Toledano

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Report/Policy Paper: Outcome Report on the Climate Crisis, Global Land Use and Human Rights Conference, Mateusz Kasprowicz, Sam Szoke-Burke, and Kaitlin Y. Cordes

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Report/Policy Paper: Securing Adequate Legal Defense in Proceedings under International Investment Agreements: A Scoping Study, Lise Johnson and Brooke Guven

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Report/Policy Paper: The Policy Implications of Third-Party Funding in Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Brooke Guven and Lise Johnson

Publications from 2018

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Article: Framing the Global Pact for the Environment: Why It’s Needed, What It Does, and How It Does It, Teresa Parejo Navajas and Nathan Lobel

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Article: Il Contributo Delle Compagnie Oil & Gas nel Raggiungimento Degli Obiettivi Energetici e Climatici (How Oil and Gas Companies Can Help Meet the Global Goals on Energy and Climate Change), Lisa E. Sachs, Nicolas Maennling, and Perrine Toledano

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Article: Tax Expenditure and the Treatment of Tax Incentives for Investment, Agustin Redonda, Santiago Diaz de Sarralde, Mark Hallerberg, Lise Johnson, Ariel Melamud, Ricardo Rozemberg, Jakob Schwab, and Christian von Haldenwang

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Article: Tying the Knot: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Understanding the Human Right to Adequate Nutrition, Jessica Fanzo, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Elizabeth F. Fox, and Anna Bulman

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Book: Rethinking International Investment Governance: Principles for the 21st Century, Emma Aisbett, Barnali Choudhury, Olivier De Schutter, Frank Garcia, James Harrison, Song Hong, Lise Johnson, Mouhamadou Kane, Santiago Peña, Matthew Porterfield, Susan Sell, Stephen E. Shay, and Louis T. Wells

Book: The Yearbook on International Investment Law & Policy 2015-2016, Lisa E. Sachs and Lise Johnson

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Book Chapter: Implementing Shared-Use of Mining Infrastructure to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, Perrine Toledano and Nicolas Maennling

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Book Chapter: Investments and Human Rights in the Agricultural Sector, Kaitlin Y. Cordes