The Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment (CCSI), a joint center of Columbia Law School and Columbia Climate School at Columbia University, is the only university-based applied research center and forum dedicated to the study, practice and discussion of sustainable international investment. It develops practical approaches for governments, investors, communities, and other stakeholders to maximize the benefits of international investment for sustainable development. Applying its legal, economic, and policy expertise, CCSI addresses sustainable investment holistically, bridging investment law, natural resource management, human rights, economics, political economy, and environmental management. It works to strengthen the sustainable development potential of international investment, and to ensure that international investment is mutually beneficial for investors and the citizens of recipient countries.

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Publications from 2024

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Memo/Briefing Note: UNCITRAL Working Group III: Contribution on the ‘Right to Regulate’ Provision, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, International Institute for Environment and Development, and South Centre

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Report: Recommendations to Update the FTC & DOJ’s Guidelines for Collaborations Among Competitors, Cynthia Hanawalt, Denise Hearn, and Chloe Field

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Report/Policy Paper: Billion-Dollar Exposure: Investor-State Dispute Settlement in Mozambique’s Fossil Fuel Sector, Lea Di Salvatore and Maria Julia Gubeissi

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Report/Policy Paper: Circular Economy in the Industrial Goods Sector: A Framework for Understanding Private Sector Progress and Innovation, Chris Albin-Lackey and Madeleine Songy

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Report/Policy Paper: Government Procurement, Financial Services, and Environment: Linkages and Implications for the EU and Brazil, Adeet Dobhal and Lucas Moreira Jiminez

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Report/Policy Paper: Harms from Concentrated Industries: A Primer, Denise Hearn

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Report/Policy Paper: How the International Investment Law Regime Undermines Access to Justice for Investment-Affected Stakeholders, Ladan Mehranvar

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Report/Policy Paper: Incorporating Climate Considerations into Investment Assessment Processes: Guidance for National and Local Governments, Esther Akwii, Grace Brennan, Leslie Hannay, Martin Dietrich Brauch, and Nora Mardirossian

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Report/Policy Paper: Reforming International Investment Law to Advance Tax Justice, Madeleine Songy

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Working Paper: An International Law Framework for Climate-Aligned Investment Governance, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Elena Klonsky, Fanny Marie Everard, Qiaozi Guanglin, Tyler Alviano, Justin Cuddihey, and Mary Wang

Publications from 2023

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Book Chapter: Carajás Corridor in Brazil: Could an SEA Have Reconciled Shared-Use Infrastructure and Environmental Protection?, Perrine Toledano and Martin Dietrich Brauch

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Book Chapter: The Role and Relevance of Investment Treaties in Promoting Renewable Energy Investments, Ladan Mehranvar and Lisa E. Sachs

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Memo/Briefing Note: CCSI Submission to the Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment: Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) Mechanisms and the Right To a Clean, Healthy, and Sustainable Environment, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: Commentary: Nature-Based Insetting: A Harmful Distraction from Corporate Decarbonization, Nora Mardirossian and Jack Arnold

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Memo/Briefing Note: Comments on U.S. Funding for GHG Corporate Reporting Standardization, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment and Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

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Memo/Briefing Note: Enabling a Just Transition: Protecting Human Rights in Renewable Energy Projects: A Briefing For Policymakers, Hansika Agrawal, Laura El-Katiri, Kimathi Muiruri, and Sam Szoke-Burke

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Memo/Briefing Note: Investor–State Dispute Settlements: A Hidden Handbrake on Climate Action, Lea Di Salvatore, Lorenzo Cotula, Anirudh Nanda, and Chloe Yuqing Wang

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Report: Decommissioning Liability at the End of Offshore Oil and Gas: A Review of International Obligations, National Laws, and Contractual Approaches in Ten Jurisdictions, Martin Lockman, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Esteban F. Fresno Rodríguez, and José Luis Gallardo Torres

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Report/Policy Paper: Antitrust and Sustainability: A Landscape Analysis, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment and Sabin Center for Climate Change Law

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Report/Policy Paper: Circularity in Mineral and Renewable Energy Value Chains: Overview of Technology, Policy, and Finance Aspects, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, and Jack Arnold

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Report/Policy Paper: Community Benefit Sharing and Renewable Energy and Green Hydrogen Projects: Policy Guidance for Governments, Perrine Toledano, Chris Albin-Lackey, Maria Diez Andres, and Martin Dietrich Brauch

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Report/Policy Paper: Effective Shareholder Engagement to Address the Food Sector’s SDG-Related Impacts in Mexico, Nora Mardirossian

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Report/Policy Paper: Finance for Zero: Redefining Financial-Sector Action to Achieve Global Climate Goals, Lisa E. Sachs, Nora Mardirossian, and Perrine Toledano

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Report/Policy Paper: GHG Accounting for Low-emissions Branded Steel and Aluminum Products, John Biberman, Perrine Toledano, and Chloe Zhou

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Report/Policy Paper: GHG Accounting Methods in the Aluminum Industry, John Biberman, Perrine Toledano, and Rohini Ram Mohan

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Report/Policy Paper: Harmonizing Product-Level GHG Accounting for Steel and Aluminum, John Biberman, Gyunbae Joe, and Perrine Toledano

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Report/Policy Paper: Net Zero Roadmap for Copper and Nickel, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, Carbon Trust, RMI, and Payne Institute for Public Policy

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Report/Policy Paper: Provisions on Liability for Decommissioning Upstream Offshore Oil and Gas Infrastructure in Investor–State Contracts, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Esteban F. Fresno Rodríguez, and José Luis Gallardo Torres

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Report/Policy Paper: Transferred Emissions Are Still Emissions: Why Fossil Fuel Asset Sales Need Enhanced Transparency and Carbon Accounting, Jack Arnold, Martin Lockman, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Shraman Sen, and Michael Burger

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Report/Policy Paper: Turning the Tide: How to Harness the Americas Partnership for Economic Prosperity to Deliver an ISDS-Free Americas, Daniel Rangel, Lori Wallach, Ladan Mehranvar, Alvaro Santos, and Mario Osorio

Publications from 2022

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Memo/Briefing Note: CCSI’s Consolidated Feedback on the WBA Draft Nature Benchmark Methodology, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: Climate Action Needs Investment Governance, Not Investment Protection and Arbitration, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: International Investment Governance and Achieving a Just Zero-Carbon Future, Ella Merrill, Martin Dietrich Brauch, and Lisa E. Sachs

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Memo/Briefing Note: International Investment Law and the Extractive Industries, Ella Merrill, Jesse Coleman, Lisa E. Sachs, and Lise Johnson

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Memo/Briefing Note: North Africa Can Reduce Europe's Dependence on Russian Gas by Transporting Wasted Gas Through Existing Infrastructure, Mark Davis, Perrine Toledano, and Thomas Schorr

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Report/Policy Paper: Allocation of Climate-Related Risks in Investor–State Mining Contracts, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Perrine Toledano, and Cody Aceveda

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Report/Policy Paper: Business Guide: Respecting the Human Rights of Communities in Wind and Solar Project Deployment, Sarah Dolton-Zborowski and Sam Szoke-Burke

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Report/Policy Paper: Conflicts Between GHG Accounting Methodologies in the Steel Industry, John Biberman, Perrine Toledano, Baihui Lei, Max Lulavy, and Rohini Ram Mohan

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Report/Policy Paper: How Much Have the Oil Supermajors Contributed to Climate Change?, Jiarui Chen, Perrine Toledano, and Martin Dietrich Brauch

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Report/Policy Paper: Investment Incentives: A Survey of Policies and Approaches for Sustainable Investment, Lise Johnson and Perrine Toledano

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Report/Policy Paper: Legal Primer: Respecting the Human Rights of Communities in Wind and Solar Project Deployment, Sarah Dolton-Zborowski and Sam Szoke-Burke

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Report/Policy Paper: Legal Provisions on Shared Use of Mining Infrastructure: Rail, Port, and Power, Logan Hinderliter, Martin Dietrich Brauch, and Perrine Toledano

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Report/Policy Paper: New Producer Contract Terms and Uncertainty: Lessons From the Recent Past, Patrick R.P. Heller, Perrine Toledano, David Mihalyi, and Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye

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Report/Policy Paper: PLUS Politics: Tackling the EIA Impact Gap, Leila Kazemi, Perrine Toledano, and Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye

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Report/Policy Paper: Roadmap to Zero-Carbon Electrification of Africa by 2050: The Green Energy Transition and the Role of the Natural Resource Sector (Minerals, Fossil Fuels, and Land), Jeffrey D. Sachs, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Efosa Uwaifo, and Bryan Michael Sherrill

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Report/Policy Paper: Scaling Investment in Renewable Energy Generation to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals 7 (Affordable and Clean Energy) and 13 (Climate Action) and the Paris Agreement: Roadblocks and Drivers, Mithatcan Aydos, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Ladan Mehranvar, Theodoros Iliopoulos, and Sunayana Sasmal

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Report/Policy Paper: Scaling Investment in Renewable Energy: Roadblocks and Drivers – Executive Summary, Mithatcan Aydos, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Ladan Mehranvar, Theodoros Iliopoulos, and Sunayana Sasmal

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Report/Policy Paper: Supporting Good Governance of Extractive Industries in Politically Hostile Settings: Rethinking Approaches and Strategies, Leila Kazemi and Ricardo Soares de Oliveira

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Report/Policy Paper: The Role of Investment Treaties and Investor–State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) in Renewable Energy Investments, Ladan Mehranvar and Sunayana Sasmal

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Report/Policy Paper: Unlocking the Power of Reformers to Achieve Better Progress on Extractives Governance, Leila Kazemi and Perrine Toledano

Publications from 2021

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Article: Advocates Say ISDS Is Necessary Because Domestic Courts Are ‘Inadequate,’ But Claims and Decisions Don’t Reveal Systemic Failings, Maria Rocha, Martin Dietrich Brauch, and Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye

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Article: Corporate Net-Zero Pledges: The Bad and the Ugly, Jack Arnold and Perrine Toledano

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Article: Investment Governance in Africa to Support Climate Resilience and Decarbonization, Martin Dietrich Brauch and Brenda Akankunda

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Article: Investor-State Dispute Prevention: A Critical Reflection, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs, and Ella Merrill

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Article: Nigeria’s Petroleum Industry Bill: A Missed Opportunity to Prepare for the Zero-Carbon Future, Solina Kennedy, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Perrine Toledano, and Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye

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Article: Should the European Union Fix, Leave or Kill the Energy Charter Treaty?, Martin Dietrich Brauch

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Memo/Briefing Note: Comments to the Draft Working Group III Workplan, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, International Institute for Environment and Development, and International Institute for Sustainable Development

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Memo/Briefing Note: The Case for a Climate-Smart Update of the Africa Mining Vision, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Karan Bhulwaka, and Kojo Busia

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Report/Policy Paper: Carbon Accounting by Public and Private Financial Institutions: Can We Be Sure Climate Finance Is Leading to Emissions Reductions?, Martin Dietrich Brauch and Emily Spittle

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Report/Policy Paper: Comparison Between the IPCC Reporting Framework and Country Practice, Jiarui Chen and Martin Dietrich Brauch

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Report/Policy Paper: COVID-19 and Land-based Investment: Changing Landscapes, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Nathaniah Jacobs, and Clarisse Marsac

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Report/Policy Paper: Decarbonization Pathways for Paraguay’s Energy Sector, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment; Quadracci Sustainable Engineering Lab; and Centro de Recursos Naturales, Energía y Desarrollo (CRECE)

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Report/Policy Paper: Five Years After the Adoption of the Paris Agreement, Are Climate Change Considerations Reflected in Mining Contracts?, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, and Mara Greenberg

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Report/Policy Paper: Fixing the Business of Food: Aligning Food Company Practices with the SDGs, Sustainable Development Solutions Network, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment, Sanda Chiara Lab, and Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition

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Report/Policy Paper: Getting From Ideas to Reality: Building Political Support to Translate Good Ideas Into Actual Practice, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment and Leila Kazemi

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Report/Policy Paper: Guide on Incentives for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems, Anna Bulman, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Ladan Mehranvar, Ella Merrill, and Yannick Fiedler

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Report/Policy Paper: Handbook for SDG-Aligned Food Companies: Four Pillar Framework Standards, Nora Mardirossian, Gaëlle Espinosa, Rico Rincón, Diana Marcela, Erin O’Dwyer, Abrania Marrero, Regan Plekenpol, Claudia P. Baethgen, Urvi Agarwal, Lisa E. Sachs, and Jeffrey D. Sachs

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Report/Policy Paper: New Tech, New Deal: Mining Policy Options in the Face of New Technology, Isabelle Ramdoo, Aaron Cosbey, Jeff Geipel, and Perrine Toledano

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Report/Policy Paper: Primer on International Investment Treaties and Investor-State Dispute Settlement, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Report/Policy Paper: Responsible Coffee Sourcing: Towards a Living Income for Producers, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Margaret Sagan, and Solina Kennedy

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Report/Policy Paper: Transparency for Whom? Grounding Land Investment Transparency in the Needs of Local Actors, Sam Szoke-Burke

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Report/Policy Paper: Transparency of Land-based Investments: Cameroon Country Snapshot, Sam Szoke-Burke, Samuel Nguiffo, and Stella Tchoukep

Publications from 2020

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Article: Equipping the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation for the Low-Carbon Transition: How Are Other National Oil Companies Adapting?, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, and Francisco Javier Pardinas Favela

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Article: Making Coffee Sustainable, Jeffrey D. Sachs and Kaitlin Y. Cordes

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Article: Mechanisms for Consultation and Free, Prior and Informed Consent in the Negotiation of Investment Contracts, Sam Szoke-Burke and Kaitlin Y. Cordes

Book: The Yearbook on International Investment Law & Policy 2018, Lisa E. Sachs, Lise Johnson, and Jesse Coleman

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Book Chapter: Health Priorities for Sustainable Development, Lisa E. Sachs and Jeffrey D. Sachs

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Memo/Briefing Note: Briefing Note: Aligning International Investment Agreements with the Sustainable Development Goals, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs, and Nathan Lobel

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Memo/Briefing Note: Comment on US Trade and Investment Agreements Submitted to USTR, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Memo/Briefing Note: Draft Transparency Policy and DFC Board of Directors Public Engagement Policy, Kaitlin Y. Cordes

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Memo/Briefing Note: Executive Summary on Ensuring Economic Viability and Sustainability of Coffee Production, Jeffrey D. Sachs, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, James Rising, Perrine Toledano, and Nicolas Maennling

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Memo/Briefing Note: Incorporating Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) into Investment Approval Processes, Kelly Dudine and Sam Szoke-Burke

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Memo/Briefing Note: Investment Promotion and Facilitation for Sustainable Development, Brooke Guven

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Memo/Briefing Note: Modern Provisions in Investment Treaties, Jesse Coleman

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Memo/Briefing Note: Submission to Bonsucro re Production Standard v5 (2019-21), Nami Patel and Sam Szoke-Burke

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Memo/Briefing Note: The COMET Framework: Greenhouse Gas Data Transparency to Enable the Success of EU Climate Policy, Martin Dietrich Brauch and Solina Kennedy

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Report/Policy Paper: A Review of Sierra Leone’s Mines and Minerals Act, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Perrine Toledano, and Sophie Thomashausen

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Report/Policy Paper: Best Practices in Data Driven Development Planning in Mining Regions, Nicolas Maennling and Josefina Correa

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Report/Policy Paper: Don’t Throw Caution to the Wind: In the Green Energy Transition, Not All Critical Minerals Will Be Goldmines, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Solina Kennedy, and Howard Mann

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Report/Policy Paper: Electric Utility Alignment with the SDGs & the Paris Climate Agreement, Perrine Toledano, Aniket Shah, Nicolas Maennling, and Ryan J. Lasnick

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Report/Policy Paper: Environmental Injustice: How Treaties Undermine Human Rights Related to the Environment, Lisa E. Sachs, Lise Johnson, and Ella Merrill

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Report/Policy Paper: Free, Prior and Informed Consent: Addressing Political Realities to Improve Impact, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye and Leila Kazemi

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Report/Policy Paper: Getting the Most Out of Extractive Industries Transparency: How a More Explicit Treatment of Political Considerations Could Strengthen the Impact of Transparency Efforts, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Report/Policy Paper: Mining and the SDGs: A 2020 Status Update, Responsible Mining Foundation and Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

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Report/Policy Paper: Preparing Legal Frameworks for Environmental Disasters: Practical Considerations for Host States, Brooke Guven, Perrine Toledano, and Lise Johnson

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Report/Policy Paper: Shared-Use Infrastructure Along the World’s Largest Iron Ore Operation: Lessons Learned from the Carajás Corridor, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Nicolas Maennling, Perrine Toledano, Edgar Santos Monteiro, and Felipe Botelho Tavares

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Report/Policy Paper: Transparency in the Extractive Industries: Getting Serious About Politics to Get Serious About Impact, Leila Kazemi and Michael Jarvis

Publications from 2019

Article: A Model for “Smart” Mineral Enterprise Development for Spurring Investment in Climate Change Mitigation Technology, Saleem Ali, Robert K. Perrons, Perrine Toledano, and Nicolas Maennling

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Article: Environmental Injustice: How Treaties Undermine the Right to a Healthy Environment, Lisa E. Sachs, Lise Johnson, and Ella Merrill

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Book: Modelling for Sustainable Development: New Decisions for a New Age, Andrea M. Bassi, Liesbeth Casier, David Laborde, Max Linsen, David Manley, Nicolas Maennling, Howard Mann, Morten Siersted, Carin Smaller, Iain Steele, David Uzsoki, and Johnny West